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Glycogen synthesis is initiated by the autoglucosylation of Glycogenin-1. Specifically, Glycogenin-1 glucosylates itself to begin the synthesis of glycogen in mammalian skeletal muscle. It acts as the primer to which further glucose monomers may be added. All of the Glycogenin-1 Molecules contain at least one glucosyl residue before autoglucosylation begins. The first step of the glycogen synthesis occurs when a glucose molecule from UDP-glucose binds to the hydroxyl group of Tyr 194 on the Glycogenin-1 Molecule. Using its glucosyltransferase activity, Glycogenin-1 adds more glucoses, each one coming from UDP-glucose. The glycosylation process reaches a plateau when five new glucose residues have been added, at which point glycogen synthase (GS) takes over and further elongates the chain. Glycogenin-1 remains covalently attached to the reducing end of the glycogen molecule.
Synonyms: Glycogenin, Glycogenin-1, Glycogenin1, GLYG_HUMAN, GN-1, GN1, GYG 1, GYG, GYG1.