ALKB protects DNA and RNA against damage from methylating compounds from the environment by directly reversing 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) cytotoxic alkylation lesions in DNA and RNA. The enzymes act by oxidative demethylation, utilizing ferrous iron and alpha-ketoglutarate as cofactors, 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate, and molecular oxygen as the oxidizing agent. Deficiencies in DNA and RNA repair in mammals are associated with cancer, neurological disease and developmental defects. ALKB plays a role in resistance to anti-cancer drugs which attempt to damage tumor DNA. Escherichia coli ALKB protein belongs to the superfamily of 2-oxoglutarate- and iron(II)-dependent oxygenases.
Synonyms: ABH, ABH1, alkB, AlkB, alkylation repair homolog 1 E. coli, ALKB1_HUMAN, ALKBH, ALKBH1, Alkylated DNA repair protein alkB homolog 1, Alkylation repair homolog 1, Alkylation repair, alkB homolog, Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase ABH1, DNA lyase ABH1, hABH.