Epigenetics is the study of heritable cellular, and physiological traits by factors other than DNA sequence. Examples are simple chemical modifications, like methylation and acetylation to DNA and interacting partners. Since the basic structure of the respective nucleobase is retained, DNA methylation is not a genetic mutation but a modification. These changes are however they play a role in controlling how, where, and when certain genes are expressed.
Antibodies against Histone 3 Modifications
Histone H3K27m3 - shutting down Transcription
H3K27m3 is a deeply studied target of epigenetic researchers looking for inactive genes. Unlike other histone methylations, H3K27m3 has only one known methyltransferase: EZH2. EZH2 is responsible for the repression many genes involved in development and cell differentiation. Therefore H3K27m3 is critical for the repression of developmental genes acting in opposition to H3K4m3. When H3K27 is trimethylated, it is tightly associated with inactive gene promoters.
The mono- and di-methylation states are less studied; however, H3K27m2 shows a similar distribution to H3K27, while H3K27m1 is associated with active promoters. H3K27 can also be target of acetylation. Lysine residues can only be methylated or acetylated, in comparison the acetylation leads to opposite effects - with active transcription and antagonism of H3K27m3 regulated genes.
Several approaches are viable to study histones, including chromatin immunoprecipitation (together with its large-scale variants ChIP-on-chip and ChIP-Seq), fluorescent in situ hybridization or bisulfite sequencing. Recently cleavage under targets and release using nuclease (CUT&RUN) gained more and more traction as a consequent improvement for ChIP based methods.
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Discover all Epigenetic Antibodies against Histone H3 Modifications! Antibodies against Histone H3 Acetylations and Methylations on Lysine and Arginine.