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GLUD2 is both mitochondrial matrix enzymes belonging to the Glu/Leu/Phe/Val dehydrogenases family. Exisiting as homohexamers, GLUD1 catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to ?ketoglutarate and ammonia while GLUD2 is involved in the recycling of glutamate during neurotransmission. GLUD1 is critical for regulating amino acid induced insulin secretion and is allosterically activated by ADP and inhibited by GTP and ATP. Mutations in the gene encoding GLUD1 causes hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome (HHS), which is an inherited condition characterized by high insulin and ammonia levels in the blood. GLUD1 may also be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. GLUD2 is expressed in testis and retina, with lower levels found in brain.
Subcellular location: Extracellular