The GGA family of proteins (Golgi-localized, ARF-binding proteins) are ubiquitous coat proteins that facilitate the trafficking of soluble proteins from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to endosomes/lysosomes by means of interactions with TGN-sorting receptors, ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor), and clathrin (1?). Members of the GGA family, GGA1,GGA2 (also known as VEAR) and GGA3, are multidomain proteins that bind mannose 6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) (1,2,4). GGAs have modular structures with an N-terminal VHS (VPS-27, Hrs, and STAM) domain followed by a GAT (GGA and TOM1) domain, a connecting hinge segment, and a C-terminal GAE (?adaptin ear) domain (5). The amino-terminal VHS domains of GGAs form complexes with the cytoplasmic domains of sorting receptors by recognizing acidic-cluster di-leucine (ACLL) sequences (3). GGA1 and GGA2 do not associate with each other, but they do colocalize on perinuclear membranes (2). The cytosolic domain of memapsin 2, but not that of memapsin 1, binds the VHS domains of GGA1 and GGA2 (6). The human GGA1 gene maps to chromosome 22 and encodes a protein that shares 45 % sequence identity with GGA2 and GGA3 (1).
Synonyms: 4930406E12Rik, ADP ribosylation factor binding protein 1, ADP ribosylation factor binding protein GGA1, ADP-ribosylation factor-binding protein GGA1, ARF binding protein 1, ARF-binding protein 1, Gamma adaptin related protein 1, gamma ear-containing, Gamma-adaptin-related protein 1, GGA 1, GGA1, GGA1 protein, GGA1_HUMAN, Golgi associated gamma adaptin ear containing ARF, Golgi associated gamma adaptin ear containing ARF binding protein 1, Golgi localized gamma ear containing ARF binding protein 1, Golgi-localized, OTTHUMP00000028975, OTTHUMP00000042200.