Dyrk is the homolog of the Drosophila mnb (minibrain) gene, which is required for neurogenesis (1â€"3). Dyrk is a dual-specificity tyrosine kinase and serine/threonine kinase, which is itself regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation (1). Several mammalian Dyrk related proteins have been identified and are thought to compose a family of dual specificity protein kinases (4). Dyrk family members, including Dyrk1A (originally Dyrk), Dyrk1B, Dryk1C, Dyrk2, Dyrk3, Dyrk4A and Dyrk4B, are thought to be involved in diverse cellular functions (4). Dyrk1A is a candidate gene that may be involved in Downs syndrome, and it has been found to be somewhat overexpressed in Downs syndrome (1,5). Two isoforms of human fetal brain Dyrk2 exist: a deduced 528-amino acid protein and a protein containing 73 additional amino acids at the amino terminus (4). Dyrk3 is strongly expressed in testis, only after the onset of spermatogenesis, and very weakly expressed in spleen and adrenal gland (1). The genes which encode Dyrk2 and Dyrk3 map to human chromosomes 12 and 1q32, respectively (4).
Synonyms: 1810038L18Rik, Dual specicity tyrosine Y phosphorylation regulated kinase 2, Dual specicity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 2, Dual specicity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2, DYRK2, DYRK2_HUMAN, EC 18.104.22.168, FLJ21217, FLJ21365.