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The hearts of Rad21-depleted animals were smaller, often failed to loop, and functioned less efficiently than size-matched controls
RAD21a suppression led to delayed intestinal transit and greatly reduced numbers of enteric neurons, similar to patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
Cohesin is a protein complex essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA repair that also appears to be essential for normal development through as yet unknown mechanisms.
evidence for a possible pathogenetic role of RAD21 promoter methylation in the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
With tissue microarrays of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, we determined the prognostic values of the core genes in the network and found that RAD21, CDK1, and HDAC2 expression levels were negatively associated with overall survival for HCC patients.
This study together with previous reports suggests incomplete penetrance associated with RAD21 variants and these individuals may therefore be underdiagnosed.
Data indicate that RAD21 plays an important role in cellular senescence breast cancer cells, mainly through RB1 pathway activation via c-Myc downregulation.
Reduced RAD21 destabilizes high-level gene amplification by disrupting pre-replication complex bindings in human cancers with chromosomal instability.
found well-positioned CTCF and RAD21 peaks approximately 60-80 bp upstream of the TSS in the unidirectional genes. The peak heights were related to the amount of antisense transcription. Results provide insights into the distribution of histone modifications at promoters and suggest a novel role of CTCF and cohesin as regulators of transcriptional direction.
Studied the role of looping in large-scale (supra Mb) folding of human chromosomes by knocking down the gene that codes for CTCF and the one coding for Rad21, an essential subunit of cohesin.
Elevated RAD21 expression tracks with reactivation of L1 expression in human sporadic colorectal cancer.
Some patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction carry mutations in RAD21 that disrupt the ability of its product to regulate genes such as RUNX1 and APOB.
CTCF and Rad21 act as host cell restriction factors for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication by modulating viral gene transcription.
cohesin's proposed DNA exit gate is formed by interactions between Scc1 and the coiled-coil region of Smc3.
Cross-sectional deep-sequencing analysis for clonal hierarchy demonstrated STAG2, SMC3, and RAD21 mutations to be ancestral in 18%, 18%, and 47% of cases, respectively, and each expanded to clonal dominance concordant with disease transformation
RAD21 expression in CRC is associated with aggressive disease especially in KRAS mutant tumours and resistance to chemoradiotherapy.
This study reports the first intragenic deletion and frameshift mutations identified in RAD21 in two patients presenting with atypical Cornelia de Lange syndrome.
-RAD21 and EIF3H, both on chromosome 8q23, CHRAC1 on chromosome 8q24.3 and TANC2 on chromosome 17q23-were confirmed to be driver genes regulating the proliferation/survival of clonogenic breast cancer cells
RAD21 expression confers poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in high grade luminal, basal and HER2 breast cancers.
Rad21 binds to SA proteins through two SA-binding motifs on Rad21.
ASURA specifically binds to chromatin when Scc1 is associated with chromatin.
RAD21 expression is associated with a poorer prognosis in BRCA2, but not in BRCA1 breast cancers.
show that the Smc5/6 subunit Mms21 sumoylates multiple lysines of the cohesin subunit Scc1
The results demonstrate that the zygotic genome folds into loops and domains that critically depend on Scc1-cohesin and that are regulated in size and linear density by Wapl.
n keratinocytes, the promoter-enhancer anchoring regions in the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1. In contrast to gene-rich TADs, gene-poor TADs show preferential spatial contacts with each other, do not contain active enhancers and show decreased binding of CTCF, Rad21 and Brg1 in keratinocytes
the cohesin complex regulates PRC2 targeting to silence Hoxa7 and Hoxa9 and negatively regulate self-renewal. Our studies identify a novel epigenetic mechanism underlying leukemogenesis in AML patients with cohesin mutations.
Knockdown of Rad21 reduces expression of the constitutive, biallelically expressed Pcdhalpha isoforms alphac1 and alphac2.
show that spermatocytes from mice lacking the two meiosis-specific cohesin subunits RAD21L and REC8 were unable to initiate RAD51- but not DMC1-mediated double-strand break repair
findings firmly establish a cell-division-independent role for cohesin in Tcra locus rearrangement and provide a comprehensive account of the mechanisms by which cohesin enables cellular differentiation
knock-down of RAD21 causes expression changes that are similar to expression changes after Nanog depletion, demonstrating the functional relevance of the RAD21--pluripotency transcriptional network association
The signal of RAD21 was prominent in somatic cells outside the seminiferous tubules or in spermatogonia, and was also detected in some spermatocytes localizing away from the basement membrane.
Rad21 is a DNA-damage response gene that markedly affects animal and cell survival
a cohesin complex containing Rad21 and STAG2 cooperates with a STAG3-specific complex to maintain sister chromatid cohesion during the diplotene stage of meiosis
Analyses of mRNA expression patterns of cohesin subunits Rad21 and Rec8 in mice: germ cell-specific expression of rec8 mRNA in both male and female mice.
Rad21, and the superimposed SCP3 and SCP2, are involved in the monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I
The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad21, a gene involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in chromatid cohesion during mitosis. This protein is a nuclear phospho-protein, which becomes hyperphosphorylated in cell cycle M phase. The highly regulated association of this protein with mitotic chromatin specifically at the centromere region suggests its role in sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells.
double-strand-break repair protein rad21 homolog
, RAD21 homolog (S. pombe)
, SCC1 homolog
, nuclear matrix protein 1
, protein involved in DNA double-strand break repair
, sister chromatid cohesion 1
, pokeweed agglutinin-binding protein 29
, RAD21 homolog