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Upon high fat diet exposure, PKR1 (tcf-/-) mice displayed excessive fat deposition in the atrioventricular groove, perivascular area, and pericardium, which was accompanied by an impaired vascular network and cardiac dysfunction.
The study shows that PK2beta ligand, a splice variant of prokineticin 2, is able to modulate and drive signaling through prokineticin receptor 1.
The authors discovered that PKR1 regulates epicardial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) for epicardial-derived progenitor cell (EPDC), formation. This event affects at least three consequential steps during heart development: (i) EPDC and cardiomyocyte proliferation involved in thickening of an outer compact ventricular chamber wall, (ii) rhythmicity, (iii) formation of coronary circulation.
These results establish PKR1 via NFATc3 as a crucial modifier of mesenchymal-epithelial transition processing to the development of nephron.
show that MRAP2 significantly and specifically inhibits PKR1 signaling.
Data show that the prokineticins and their receptors PROK2, PKR1 and PKR2 contributes to altered sensitivity in diabetic neuropathy and its inhibition blocked both allodynia and inflammatory events underlying disease.
These results suggest PKR1 to be a crucial player in the preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.
Loss of PKR1 causes renal and cardiac structural and functional changes because of deficits in survival signaling, mitochondrial, and progenitor cell functions in found both organs.
The functional characteristics of coronary endothelial cells depend on the expression of PKR1 and PKR2 levels and the divergent signaling pathways used by these receptors.
Identification and molecular characterization of two closely related G protein-coupled receptors (prokineticin receptor)
PKR1 protein was localised to the labyrinth layer and showed the same pattern of expression as EG-VEGF in mouse placenta.
Cardiomyocyte-PKR1 signaling upregulates its own ligand prokineticin-2 that acts as a paracrine factor, triggering epicardial-derived progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation.
Data show that the inflammation-induced up-regulation of PK2 was significantly less in pkr1 null mice than in WT and pkr2 null mice, demonstrating a role of PKR1 in setting PK2 levels during inflammation.
PROK-1 and its receptors are involved in the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis
a significant association between PKR2 rs6053283 polymorphism and Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)(P=0.003), whereas no association was observed between PKR1 rs4627609 polymorphism and RPL (P=0.929) in the Chinese Han population.
Data suggest that prokineticins (PROK1 and PROK2) and prokineticin receptors (PROKR1 and PROKR2) act as main regulators of physiological functions of ovary, uterus, placenta, and testis. [REVIEW]
EG-VEGF and its receptor PKR1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for this rare malignant disease.
Expression of PROK1 and PROKR1 was significantly higher in mid-gestation ovaries (17-20 wk) than at earlier gestations (8-11 and 14-16 wk).
Study corroborates the clinical relevance of the EG-VEGF system in human early pregnancy, and provides evidence for the gene-gene interactions of EG-VEGF and PROKR variants.
I397V variant confers lower risk for recurrent miscarriage
hCG increases EG-VEGF, PROKR1 and PROKR2 mRNA and protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, demonstrating a new role for hCG in the regulation of EG-VEGF and its receptors
The results suggest an identical transmembrane-bundle binding site for hPKR1 and hPKR2.
Findings, together with the detection of sequence variants in PROKR1, PROK1 and PROKR2 genes associated to HSCR and, in some cases in combination with RET or GDNF mutations, provide evidence to consider them as susceptibility genes for HSCR.
The number of PKR1 is not reduced in preeclampsia.
Data suggest that smoking targets human Fallopian tubes via nAChRalpha-7 to increase tubal PROKR1, leading to alterations in the tubal microenvironment that could predispose to ectopic pregnancy.
Data show that expression of PK1 and PKR1 was detected in primary MM cells and myeloma cell lines.
Two tag SNPs of PKR1 (rs4627609, rs6731838) were significantly associated with idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss.
Data shown that PROK1-PROKR1 induces the expression of IL-11 in PROKR1 Ishikawa cells and first trimester decidua.
molecular cloning, amino acid sequence and expression in several human tissues
Paracrine role for the PKs and their receptors in endometrial vascular function.
study demonstrated that prokineticin 1 and 2 and their receptors are expressed in human prostate and that their levels increased with prostate malignancy
PROK1 and PROKR1 expression is elevated in human decidua during early pregnancy PROK1-PROKR1 interaction regulates expression of a host of implantation-related genes.
PROK1, acting via PROKR1, may be involved in the recruitment of monocytes to regressing CL and atretic follicles and their consequent activation therein.
G protein-coupled receptor for prokineticin
G protein-coupled receptor 73
, G-protein coupled receptor 73
, G protein-coupled receptor ZAQ
, G-protein coupled receptor ZAQ
, prokineticin receptor 1
, prokineticin receptor 1-like