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Apoptose

La mort programmée de cellules ou apoptose est un processus physiologique important dans les organismes multicellulaires. L'équilibre entre la croissance des cellules et leur division et le taux de mort cellulaire permet l'ajustement dynamique du nombre de cellules selon des paramètres internes ou externes. Par exemple, pendant le développement du système nerveux des vertébrés environ la moitié des cellules subissent l'apoptose peu de temps après avoir été formées. Dans un organisme adulte, cet équilibre est essentiel pour maintenir la taille et la fonction des organes et des tissus. La dérégulation de cet équilibre mène souvent au cancer. À la différence de la nécrose qui cause une réponse inflammatoire potentiellement préjudiciable après que les cellules affectées éclatent, l'apoptose se déroule d'une manière très organisée : la cellule rétrécit et se condense tandis que les structures internes sont démontées et l'ADN est réduit en fragments. La cellule mourante est alors rapidement phagocytée par les cellules ou les macrophages voisins.

Au cœur du processus apoptotique se trouvent les caspases, une famille de protéases à cystéine. Elles sont produites sous forme de procaspases qui sont ensuite activées par clivage par d'autres caspases. Cette cascade de caspases est déclenchée lorsque les procaspases initiatrices (par exemple les procaspases 8, 9, 10) sont regroupées à l'aide des protéines adaptatrices, facilitant ainsi l'activation mutuelle due à une faible activité protéase ou des changements conformationnels des procaspases. Les caspases activées sont alors libres pour activer à leur tour des caspases effectrices (par exemple. les caspases 3, 6, et 7) et favoriser l'apoptose. Leur effet est également régulé par des protéines de la famille Bcl-2 (par exemple Bcl-2, Bcl-XL) et de la famille IAPs (inhibiteurs d'apoptose, par exemple BIRC1, XIAP).

Les processus apoptotiques suivent plusieurs voies. Des voies extrinsèques via un récepteur de mort sont induites par des ligands qui se lient à une famille de protéines réceptrices de mort (par exemple. les récepteurs FAS et TRAIL) contenant un domaine de mort cytoplasmique. La voie intrinsèque est engagée en réponse aux dommages à l'ADN ou au stress mitochondrial et revêt une importance toute particulière dans le cancer. Outre ces voies apoptotiques canoniques il existe également des voies indépendantes des caspases, déclenchées par exemple par le granzyme B et A. On pense que ces voies indépendantes des caspases ont évolué pour faire face aux virus qui inhibent les caspases.

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Caspases

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...

CASP3 - Caspase 3

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a...

CASP8 - Caspase 8

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
CASP2 - Caspase 2: CASP2 anticorps CASP2 ELISA Kits CASP2 Proteins
CASP4 - Caspase 4: CASP4 anticorps CASP4 ELISA Kits CASP4 Proteins
CASP6 - Caspase 6: CASP6 anticorps CASP6 ELISA Kits CASP6 Proteins
CASP7 - Caspase 7: CASP7 anticorps CASP7 ELISA Kits CASP7 Proteins
CASP10 - Caspase 10: CASP10 anticorps CASP10 ELISA Kits CASP10 Proteins
CASP12 - Caspase 12: CASP12 anticorps CASP12 ELISA Kits  

Mitochondrial

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BCL2L1 (BCL2-Like 1):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
BAK1 (BCL2-Antagonist/killer 1): BAK1 anticorps BAK1 ELISA Kits BAK1 Proteins
BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death): BAD anticorps BAD ELISA Kits BAD Proteins
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX anticorps BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteins
BID (BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist): BID anticorps BID ELISA Kits BID Proteins
CYCS - Cytochrome C: CYCS anticorps CYCS ELISA Kits CYCS Proteins
DIABLO (Second Mitochondria-Derived Activator of Caspase): DIABLO anticorps DIABLO ELISA Kits DIABLO Proteins

Inhibitor of Apoptosis

BIRC2 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of proteins that inhibits apoptosis by binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2, probably by interfering with activation of ICE-like proteases. This encoded protein inhibits apoptosis induced by serum deprivation and menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants...   More...

NAIP (NLR Family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein):

This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements...

XIAP (X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis):

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed,...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
BIRC3 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat Containing 3): BIRC3 anticorps BIRC3 ELISA Kits BIRC3 Proteins
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 anticorps BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteins
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 anticorps    

Receptor

FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)):

The protein encoded by this gene is the ligand for FAS. Both are transmembrane proteins. Interaction of FAS with this ligand is critical in...

TNFSF12 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 12):

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein is a ligand for the...

TNF - Tumor Necrosis Factor

This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly...

TNFRSF1B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1B):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein and TNF-receptor 1 form a heterocomplex that mediates...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
CRADD (CASP2 and RIPK1 Domain Containing Adaptor with Death Domain): CRADD anticorps CRADD ELISA Kits CRADD Proteins
CFLAR (CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulator): CFLAR anticorps CFLAR ELISA Kits CFLAR Proteins
CYLD (Cylindromatosis (Turban Tumor Syndrome)): CYLD anticorps CYLD ELISA Kits CYLD Proteins
DR4 (Drought-Repressed 4 Protein): DR4 anticorps    
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS anticorps FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteins
FADD (Fas (TNFRSF6)-Associated Via Death Domain): FADD anticorps FADD ELISA Kits FADD Proteins
RIPK1 (Receptor (TNFRSF)-Interacting serine-threonine Kinase 1): RIPK1 anticorps RIPK1 ELISA Kits RIPK1 Proteins
TRAF1 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 1): TRAF1 anticorps TRAF1 ELISA Kits TRAF1 Proteins
TRAF2 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2): TRAF2 anticorps TRAF2 ELISA Kits TRAF2 Proteins
TRAF3 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 3): TRAF3 anticorps TRAF3 ELISA Kits TRAF3 Proteins
TRAF5 (TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 5): TRAF5 anticorps TRAF5 ELISA Kits TRAF5 Proteins
TRADD (TNFRSF1A-Associated Via Death Domain): TRADD anticorps TRADD ELISA Kits TRADD Proteins
TNFSF10 (Tumor Necrosis Factor (Ligand) Superfamily, Member 10): TNFSF10 anticorps TNFSF10 ELISA Kits TNFSF10 Proteins
TNFRSF10A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10a): TNFRSF10A anticorps TNFRSF10A ELISA Kits TNFRSF10A Proteins
TNFRSF10B (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10b): TNFRSF10B anticorps TNFRSF10B ELISA Kits TNFRSF10B Proteins
TNFRSF10C (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10c, Decoy Without An Intracellular Domain): TNFRSF10C anticorps TNFRSF10C ELISA Kits TNFRSF10C Proteins
TNFRSF10D (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 10d, Decoy with Truncated Death Domain): TNFRSF10D anticorps TNFRSF10D ELISA Kits TNFRSF10D Proteins
TNFRSF12A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 12A): TNFRSF12A anticorps TNFRSF12A ELISA Kits TNFRSF12A Proteins
TNFRSF1A (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 1A): TNFRSF1A anticorps TNFRSF1A ELISA Kits TNFRSF1A Proteins
TNFRSF25 (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 25): TNFRSF25 anticorps TNFRSF25 ELISA Kits TNFRSF25 Proteins

Cytoplasmatic

YWHAQ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, theta Polypeptide):

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This...

YWHAZ (tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-Monooxygenase Activation Protein, zeta Polypeptide):

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
APAF1 (Apoptotic Peptidase Activating Factor 1): APAF1 anticorps APAF1 ELISA Kits APAF1 Proteins

Endoplasmatic Reticulum

CAPNL1 (Calpain 1, Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous, stomach-specific, and muscle-specific proteins. The ubiquitous enzymes consist of heterodimers with distinct large, catalytic subunits associated with a common small, regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme,...   More...

TREX1 (three Prime Repair Exonuclease 1):

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with 3' exonuclease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in DNA repair and serve as a proofreading function for DNA polymerase. Mutations in this gene result in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, chilblain lupus, Cree encephalitis, and other diseases of the immune system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep...   More...

CAPN2 (Calpain 2, (M/II) Large Subunit):

The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, are nonlysosomal, intracellular cysteine proteases. The mammalian calpains include ubiquitous,...

CAPNS1 - Calpain S1

Calpains are a ubiquitous, well-conserved family of calcium-dependent, cysteine proteases. Calpain families have been implicated in...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
NME1 (Non-Metastatic Cells 1, Protein (NM23A) Expressed in): NME1 anticorps NME1 ELISA Kits NME1 Proteins
SET (SET Nuclear Oncogene): SET anticorps SET ELISA Kits  

Granzyme

Gzmb - GZMB

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
GZMA (Granzyme A (Granzyme 1, Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated serine Esterase 3)): GZMA anticorps GZMA ELISA Kits GZMA Proteins
PRF1 - Perforin 1: PRF1 anticorps PRF1 ELISA Kits PRF1 Proteins

Nuclear

PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1):

This gene encodes a chromatin-associated enzyme, poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase, which modifies various nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The modification is dependent on DNA and is involved in the regulation of various important cellular processes such as differentiation, proliferation, and tumor transformation and also in the regulation of the molecular events involved in the recovery...   More...

LMNA - Lamin A/C

The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make...

LMNB1 - Lamin B1

The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 anticorps AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteins
ENDOG - Endonuclease G: ENDOG anticorps ENDOG ELISA Kits ENDOG Proteins
DFFA (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 45kDa, alpha Polypeptide): DFFA anticorps DFFA ELISA Kits DFFA Proteins
DFFB (DNA Fragmentation Factor, 40kDa, beta Polypeptide (Caspase-Activated DNase)): DFFB anticorps DFFB ELISA Kits DFFB Proteins
LMNB2 - Lamin B2: LMNB2 anticorps LMNB2 ELISA Kits LMNB2 Proteins
CYFIP2 (Cytoplasmic FMR1 Interacting Protein 2): CYFIP2 anticorps   CYFIP2 Proteins

DNA damage

ABL1 (C-Abl Oncogene 1, Non-Receptor tyrosine Kinase):

MTP encodes the large subunit of the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) completes the heterodimeric microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which has been shown to play a central role in lipoprotein assembly. Mutations in MTP can cause abetalipoproteinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene...

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
CHEK1 (Checkpoint Kinase 1): CHEK1 anticorps CHEK1 ELISA Kits CHEK1 Proteins
CHEK2 - Checkpoint Kinase 2: CHEK2 anticorps CHEK2 ELISA Kits CHEK2 Proteins
CCNA1 - Cyclin A1: CCNA1 anticorps CCNA1 ELISA Kits CCNA1 Proteins
TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29): TRIM29 anticorps TRIM29 ELISA Kits TRIM29 Proteins

Apoptosis Markers

ANXA5 - Annexin V

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins some of which have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. Annexin 5 is a phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C inhibitory protein with calcium channel activity and a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, growth...   More...

APOC1 (Apolipoprotein C-I):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated...

KRT18 (Keratin 18):

KRT18 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 18. Keratin 18, together with its filament partner keratin 8, are perhaps the most...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
AIFM1 (Apoptosis-Inducing Factor, Mitochondrion-Associated, 1): AIFM1 anticorps AIFM1 ELISA Kits AIFM1 Proteins
BAX (BCL2-Associated X Protein): BAX anticorps BAX ELISA Kits BAX Proteins
BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2): BCL2 anticorps BCL2 ELISA Kits BCL2 Proteins
CASP1 - Caspase 1: CASP1 anticorps CASP1 ELISA Kits CASP1 Proteins
CASP1 - Caspase 1, Apoptosis-Related Cysteine Peptidase (Interleukin 1, Beta, Convertase): CASP1 anticorps CASP1 ELISA Kits  
CASP3 - Caspase 3: CASP3 anticorps CASP3 ELISA Kits CASP3 Proteins
FAS (Fas (TNF Receptor Superfamily, Member 6)): FAS anticorps FAS ELISA Kits FAS Proteins
FASL (Fas Ligand (TNF Superfamily, Member 6)): FASL anticorps FASL ELISA Kits FASL Proteins
CLU - Clusterin: CLU anticorps CLU ELISA Kits CLU Proteins
ITGAM - CD11b: ITGAM anticorps ITGAM ELISA Kits ITGAM Proteins
MAPK1 - ERK2: MAPK1 anticorps MAPK1 ELISA Kits MAPK1 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 anticorps TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins
PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1): PARP1 anticorps PARP1 ELISA Kits PARP1 Proteins
BIRC5 (Baculoviral IAP Repeat-Containing 5): BIRC5 anticorps BIRC5 ELISA Kits BIRC5 Proteins
EPR1 (Early-Phytochrome-Responsive1): EPR1 anticorps