Signalisation MAPK

La phosphorylation est le processus réversible d'addition d'un groupe phosphate à un résidu spécifique d'acide aminé sur une molécule. Sur le plan fonctionnel, la phosphorylation agit comme un simple commutateur moléculaire qui peut activer, désactiver ou moduler la fonction d'une protéine. L'addition et l'enlèvement de groupes phosphates permettent le contrôle spatial et temporel de l'activité de la protéine. La phosphorylation est bien contrôlée par un réseau interdépendant concourant de kinases (addition de groupe phosphate à une protéine substrat) et de phosphorylases (enlèvement de groupe phosphate de ce substrat).

Les protéines kinases activées par des agents mitogènes (MAPKs) sont une famille d'enzymes kinases bien conservées et exprimées ubiquitairement, qui phosphorylent différents substrats cibles. Les MAP-kinases font partie d'une cascade de phosphorylation plus grande à plusieurs niveaux incluant les MAP2Ks et MAP3Ks. Cette organisation à plusieurs niveaux offre une plus grande flexibilité, permettant à une large gamme de kinases d'ordre supérieur de répondre aux stimuli et de contrôler la fonction cellulaire par l'activation d'un sous-ensemble plus petit de MAP-kinases qui interagissent directement avec d'autres protéines fonctionnelles.

Les MAP-kinases jouent un rôle important dans pratiquement tous les processus cellulaires. La phosphorylation dépendant de la MAPK est impliquée dans les cascades de signalisation qui régulent la progression, la différentiation, le développement et l'apoptose du cycle cellulaire.

Lectures supplémentaires : Pearson G, Robinson F, Beers Gibson T, Xu BE, Karandikar M, Berman K, Cobb MH (Avril 2001). "Voies de protéines kinases activées par des agents mitogènes (MAP) : régulation et fonctions physiologiques". Endocr. Rev. 22 (2): 153–83. doi:10.1210/er.22.2.153. PMID 11294822.

MAPK

p38 (MAP kinase p38):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires...   More...

MAPK1 - ERK2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
MAPK10 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 10): MAPK10 anticorps MAPK10 ELISA Kits MAPK10 Proteins
MAPK11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 11): MAPK11 anticorps MAPK11 ELISA Kits MAPK11 Proteins
MAPK12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 12): MAPK12 anticorps MAPK12 ELISA Kits MAPK12 Proteins
MAPK13 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 13): MAPK13 anticorps MAPK13 ELISA Kits MAPK13 Proteins
MAPK14 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 14): MAPK14 anticorps MAPK14 ELISA Kits MAPK14 Proteins
MAPK3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3): MAPK3 anticorps MAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPK3 Proteins
MAPK4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4): MAPK4 anticorps MAPK4 ELISA Kits MAPK4 Proteins
MAPK6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6): MAPK6 anticorps MAPK6 ELISA Kits MAPK6 Proteins
MAPK7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7): MAPK7 anticorps MAPK7 ELISA Kits MAPK7 Proteins
MAPK8 - JNK: MAPK8 anticorps MAPK8 ELISA Kits MAPK8 Proteins
MAPK9 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9): MAPK9 anticorps MAPK9 ELISA Kits MAPK9 Proteins

MAP2K

MAP2K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon...   More...

MAP2K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
MAP2K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3): MAP2K3 anticorps MAP2K3 ELISA Kits MAP2K3 Proteins
MAP2K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4): MAP2K4 anticorps MAP2K4 ELISA Kits MAP2K4 Proteins
MAP2K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 5): MAP2K5 anticorps MAP2K5 ELISA Kits MAP2K5 Proteins
MAP2K6 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 6): MAP2K6 anticorps MAP2K6 ELISA Kits MAP2K6 Proteins
MAP2K7 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 7): MAP2K7 anticorps MAP2K7 ELISA Kits MAP2K7 Proteins

MAP3K

MAP3K1 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1):

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in...   More...

MAP3K11 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 11):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
MAP3K12 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 12): MAP3K12 anticorps MAP3K12 ELISA Kits MAP3K12 Proteins
MAP3K2 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 2): MAP3K2 anticorps MAP3K2 ELISA Kits MAP3K2 Proteins
MAP3K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP3K3 anticorps MAP3K3 ELISA Kits MAP3K3 Proteins
MAP3K4 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4): MAP3K4 anticorps MAP3K4 ELISA Kits MAP3K4 Proteins
MAP3K5 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 5): MAP3K5 anticorps MAP3K5 ELISA Kits MAP3K5 Proteins
ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog): ARAF anticorps ARAF ELISA Kits ARAF Proteins
BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1): BRAF anticorps BRAF ELISA Kits BRAF Proteins
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 anticorps RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteins

RAF

ARAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma 3611 Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012].   More...

BRAF (V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B1):

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
RAF1 (V-Raf-1 Murine Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog 1): RAF1 anticorps RAF1 ELISA Kits RAF1 Proteins

RAS

NRAS - GTPase NRas

This is an N-ras oncogene encoding a membrane protein that shuttles between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. This shuttling is regulated through palmitoylation and depalmitoylation by the ZDHHC9-GOLGA7 complex. The encoded protein, which has intrinsic GTPase activity, is activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor and inactivated by a GTPase activating protein. Mutations in...   More...

HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog):

This gene belongs to the Ras oncogene family, whose members are related to the transforming genes of mammalian sarcoma retroviruses. The products encoded by these genes function in signal transduction pathways. These proteins can bind GTP and GDP, and they have intrinsic GTPase activity. This protein undergoes a continuous cycle of de- and re-palmitoylation, which regulates its rapid exchange...   More...

Activators

CDC42 (Cell Division Cycle 42 (GTP Binding Protein, 25kDa)):

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase of the Rho-subfamily, which regulates signaling pathways that control diverse cellular functions including cell morphology, migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression. This protein is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc 42, and is able to complement the yeast cdc42-1 mutant. The product of oncogene Dbl was reported to...   More...

PAK1 (P21-Activated Kinase 1):

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
GCK - Glucokinase: GCK anticorps GCK ELISA Kits GCK Proteins
NRAS - GTPase NRas: NRAS anticorps NRAS ELISA Kits NRAS Proteins
MAP4K3 (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 3): MAP4K3 anticorps MAP4K3 ELISA Kits MAP4K3 Proteins
PAK2 (P21-Activated Kinase 2): PAK2 anticorps PAK2 ELISA Kits PAK2 Proteins
HRAS (V-Ha-Ras Harvey Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog): HRAS anticorps HRAS ELISA Kits HRAS Proteins

Targets

ATF2 (Activating Transcription Factor 2):

This gene encodes a highly conserved neurotrophic factor. The recombinant form of this protein was shown to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in culture, and was able to prevent apoptosis of motor neurons induced by axotomy. The encoded protein is processed to a mature secreted form that exists as a homodimer. The mature form of the protein is a ligand for the...   More...

BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/lymphoma 2):

This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by...   More...

BAD (BCL2-Associated Agonist of Cell Death):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase,...   More...

BTG2 (BTG Family, Member 2):

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BTG/Tob family. This family has structurally related proteins that appear to have antiproliferative properties. This encoded protein is involved in the regulation of the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008].   More...

CANX - Calnexin

This gene encodes a member of the calnexin family of molecular chaperones. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein that interacts transiently with newly synthesized N-linked glycoproteins, facilitating protein folding and assembly. It may also play a central role in the quality control of protein folding by retaining incorrectly folded protein...   More...

CASP9 - Caspase 9

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed...   More...
Antigène dans cette catégorie:
CDT1 (Chromatin Licensing and DNA Replication Factor 1): CDT1 anticorps CDT1 ELISA Kits CDT1 Proteins
CTTN - Cortactin: CTTN anticorps CTTN ELISA Kits CTTN Proteins
DAPK1 - DAP Kinase 1: DAPK1 anticorps DAPK1 ELISA Kits DAPK1 Proteins
ELK1 (ELK1, Member of ETS Oncogene Family): ELK1 anticorps ELK1 ELISA Kits ELK1 Proteins
EIF4EBP1 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Binding Protein 1): EIF4EBP1 anticorps EIF4EBP1 ELISA Kits EIF4EBP1 Proteins
GJA1 (Gap Junction Protein, alpha 1, 43kDa): GJA1 anticorps GJA1 ELISA Kits GJA1 Proteins
HSPB1 (Heat Shock 27kDa Protein 1): HSPB1 anticorps HSPB1 ELISA Kits HSPB1 Proteins
HSF4 (Heat Shock Transcription Factor 4): HSF4 anticorps HSF4 ELISA Kits HSF4 Proteins
MCL1 - MCL-1: MCL1 anticorps MCL1 ELISA Kits MCL1 Proteins
JUN - C-JUN: JUN anticorps JUN ELISA Kits JUN Proteins
MKNK1 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 1): MKNK1 anticorps MKNK1 ELISA Kits MKNK1 Proteins
MKNK2 (MAP Kinase Interacting serine/threonine Kinase 2): MKNK2 anticorps MKNK2 ELISA Kits MKNK2 Proteins
MAPT (Microtubule-Associated Protein tau): MAPT anticorps MAPT ELISA Kits MAPT Proteins
MAPKAPK2 - MAPKAP Kinase 2: MAPKAPK2 anticorps MAPKAPK2 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK2 Proteins
MAPKAPK3 - MAPKAP Kinase 3: MAPKAPK3 anticorps MAPKAPK3 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK3 Proteins
MAPKAPK5 - MAPKAP Kinase 5: MAPKAPK5 anticorps MAPKAPK5 ELISA Kits MAPKAPK5 Proteins
PXN - Paxillin: PXN anticorps PXN ELISA Kits PXN Proteins
PPARG (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma): PPARG anticorps PPARG ELISA Kits PPARG Proteins
RGS1 (Regulator of G-Protein Signaling 1): RGS1 anticorps RGS1 ELISA Kits RGS1 Proteins
RPS6KA1 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 1): RPS6KA1 anticorps RPS6KA1 ELISA Kits RPS6KA1 Proteins
RPS6KA2 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 2): RPS6KA2 anticorps RPS6KA2 ELISA Kits RPS6KA2 Proteins
RPS6KA3 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 3): RPS6KA3 anticorps RPS6KA3 ELISA Kits RPS6KA3 Proteins
RPS6KA5 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 5): RPS6KA5 anticorps RPS6KA5 ELISA Kits RPS6KA5 Proteins
RPS6KA6 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinase, 90kDa, Polypeptide 6): RPS6KA6 anticorps RPS6KA6 ELISA Kits RPS6KA6 Proteins
SGK1 (serum/glucocorticoid Regulated Kinase 1): SGK1 anticorps SGK1 ELISA Kits SGK1 Proteins
SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1): SIRT1 anticorps SIRT1 ELISA Kits SIRT1 Proteins
Sorbs3 - Vinexin: Sorbs3 anticorps Sorbs3 ELISA Kits Sorbs3 Proteins
SPZ1 (Spermatogenic Leucine Zipper 1): SPZ1 anticorps SPZ1 ELISA Kits SPZ1 Proteins
STMN1 - Stathmin 1: STMN1 anticorps STMN1 ELISA Kits STMN1 Proteins
TP53 - p53: TP53 anticorps TP53 ELISA Kits TP53 Proteins
YAP1 (Yes-Associated Protein 1): YAP1 anticorps YAP1 ELISA Kits YAP1 Proteins