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Réparation de l'ADN

L’ADN est le vecteur de l’information génétique constituante de tout être vivant. Le code génétique inscrit dans l’ADN est essentiel dans le processus qui va de la formation des cellules à l’apparence et aux fonctions de l’organisme dans son entier. Toutefois, l’ADN est exposé en permanence aux attaques de nature endogène telles que l’hydrolyse, l’oxydation, l’alkylation, ou les erreurs de réplication. De plus, les radiations ionisantes, les UV, et une pléthore d’agents chimiques constituent des facteurs externes qui menacent l’intégrité de l’ADN.

Contrairement à l’ARN et aux protéines, l’ADN n’est pas dégradé puis re-synthétisé une fois endommagé. En revanche, différentes voies de réparation existent afin de garantir que l’ADN reste intact. En 1974, Francis Crick a fait remarquer que « nous avons complètement négligé le rôle éventuel des enzymes dans la réparation [de l’ADN]. Puis j’en suis venu à la conclusion que l’ADN est tellement précieux qu’il existe probablement de nombreux mécanismes différents. »

Aujourd’hui, cette prédiction s’avère vraie : plus d’un millier de gènes impliqués dans un réseau imbriqué de voies de réparation de l’ADN ont été identifiés depuis. Les dégâts subis par l’ADN peuvent être réparé par l’intermédiaire de six voies différentes, en fonction de la nature de la lésion : les remèdes aux modifications chimiques, aux nucléotides mal incorporés et aux liaisons transversales sont la réparation directe (DR), la réparation par mésappariement (MMR), et la réparation par excision de nucléotides. Les cassures d’un seul brin d’ADN sont réparées grâce à une excision de base. Puis les cassures de doubles brins d’ADN, hautement mutagènes, sont réparées grâce à plusieurs voies complexes qui consistent en une recombinaison homologue (HR) avec les chromatides-sœurs (lors de la phase S ou G2 du cycle cellulaire) ou en une réparation par jonction d'extrémités non homologues (NHEJ) des deux extrémités de la cassure des doubles brins. Lorsque la lésion subie par l’ADN ne peut pas être réparée rapidement, des ADN polymérases spécialisés permettent une synthèse de translésion (TLS) destiné à empêcher la fourche de réplication de l’ADN d’être paralysée. Les mutations qui rendent inopérants les éléments de ces voies de réparation provoquent des maladies telles que le xeroderma pigmentosum, l’ataxie télangiectasie, l’anémie de Fanconi, ainsi qu’une prédisposition au cancer.

Par ailleurs, ces mécanismes de réparation sont d’un intérêt capital pour les approches actuelles d’édition ciblée du génome qui, habituellement, tirent parti de ce mécanisme de réparation cellulaire de l’ADN.


Liste des Références:

  • Aparacio T et al. DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and cancer. DNA Repair (2014) PMID 24746645
  • Chatterjee N, Walker GC. Mechanisms of DNA damage, repair, and mutagenesis. Environ Mol Mutagen (2017) PMID 28485537
  • Chaudhuri AR, Nussenzweig A. The multifaceted roles of PARP1 in DNA repair and chromatin remodelling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol (2017) PMID 28676700
  • Bian L et al. MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 complex alterations and DNA damage response: implications for cancer treatment. Mol Cancer (2019) PMID 31767017
  • Fang C et al. Fanconi Anemia Pathway: Mechanisms of Breast Cancer Predisposition Development and Potential Therapeutic Targets. Front Cell Dev Biol (2020) PMID 32300589
  • Burgess JT et al. The Therapeutic Potential of DNA Damage Repair Pathways and Genomic Stability in Lung Cancer. Front Oncol (2020) PMID 32850380

Canonical Non-Homologous End-Joining

XRCC6 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 6):

XRCC5 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 5 (Double-Strand-Break Rejoining)):

PRKDC (Protein Kinase, DNA-Activated, Catalytic Polypeptide):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

H2AFX (H2A Histone Family, Member X):

XRCC4 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 4):

LIG4 (Ligase IV, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

NHEJ1 (Nonhomologous End-Joining Factor 1):

APLF (Aprataxin and PNKP Like Factor):

DCLRE1C (DNA Cross-Link Repair 1C):

PNKP (Polynucleotide Kinase 3'-Phosphatase):

POLL (Polymerase (DNA Directed), lambda):

POLM (Polymerase (DNA Directed), mu):

RAD50 (RAD50 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

TP53BP1 (Tumor Protein P53 Binding Protein 1):

Microhomology-Mediated End-Joining

PARP1 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1):

LIG3 (Ligase III, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

LIG2 - Ligase II, DNA, ATP-Dependent:

PARP2 (Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 2):

LIG1 (Ligase I, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

RAD50 (RAD50 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

WRN - RECQL2:

Homologous Recombination

RAD51 (DNA Repair Protein Homolog 1):

BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2, Early Onset):

POLE (Polymerase (DNA Directed), Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit):

POLE2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 2 (p59 Subunit)):

POLE3 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 3 (p17 Subunit)):

POLE4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), epsilon 4 (p12 Subunit)):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit):

POLD4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 4, Accessory Subunit):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

RAD51C (DNA Repair Protein RAD51 Homolog 3):

XRCC2 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 2):

XRCC3 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 3):

BRIP1 (BRCA1 Interacting Protein C-terminal Helicase 1):

BARD1 (BRCA1 Associated RING Domain 1):

UIMC1 (Ubiquitin Interaction Motif Containing 1):

RAD50 (RAD50 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

TP53BP1 (Tumor Protein P53 Binding Protein 1):

RPA1 (Replication Protein A1, 70kDa):

RPA2 (Replication Protein A2, 32kDa):

RPA3 (Replication Protein A3, 14kDa):

PALB2 (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2):

TOP3A (Topoisomerase (DNA) III alpha):

RMI1 (Homolog of Yeast RecQ-mediated Genome Instability 1):

RMI2 (RMI2, RecQ Mediated Genome Instability 2):

DNA2 (DNA Replication Helicase 2 Homolog):

WRN - RECQL2:

MUS81 (MUS81 Endonuclease Homolog):

BTBD12 (BTB (POZ) Domain Containing 12):

GEN1 (Gen Endonuclease Homolog 1):

Single Strand Annealing

ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross Complementing Polypeptide-1):

MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3):

ERCC4 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 4):

ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated):

TRIM29 (Tripartite Motif Containing 29):

ATR (Ataxia Telangiectasia and Rad3 Related):

RAD50 (RAD50 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

RPA1 (Replication Protein A1, 70kDa):

RPA2 (Replication Protein A2, 32kDa):

RPA3 (Replication Protein A3, 14kDa):

RAD52 (RAD52 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

Break-Induced Replication

RAD50 (RAD50 Homolog (S. Cerevisiae)):

MCM2 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2):

MCM7 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7):

RAD51 (DNA Repair Protein Homolog 1):

RPA1 (Replication Protein A1, 70kDa):

RPA2 (Replication Protein A2, 32kDa):

RPA3 (Replication Protein A3, 14kDa):

MCM3 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3):

MCM4 (Minichromosome Maintenance Deficient 4):

MCM5 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 5):

MCM6 (Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 6):

Base Excision Repair

OGG1 (8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase):

APEX1 (Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease 1):

MPG (N-Methylpurine-DNA Glycosylase):

SMUG1 (Single-Strand-Selective Monofunctional Uracil-DNA Glycosylase 1):

MBD4 (Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 4):

NEIL2 (Endonuclease 8-like 2):

NEIL3 (Nei Endonuclease VIII-Like 3):

POLB (Polymerase (DNA Directed), beta):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit):

POLD4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 4, Accessory Subunit):

FEN1 (Flap Structure-Specific Endonuclease 1):

LIG1 (Ligase I, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

Nuleotide Excision Repair

POLR2B (Polymerase (RNA) II (DNA Directed) Polypeptide B, 140kDa):

XPC (Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group C):

DDB1 (Damage Specific DNA Binding Protein 1):

XPA (Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A):

RAD23A (RAD23 Homolog A):

CETN2 (Centrin, EF-Hand Protein, 2):

DDB2 (Damage-Specific DNA Binding Protein 2, 48kDa):

ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross Complementing Polypeptide-1):

ERCC2 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 2):

ERCC3 (DNA Repair Protein Complementing XP-B Cells):

GTF2H1 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 1, 62kDa):

GTF2H4 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 4, 52kDa):

GTF2H3 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 3, 34kD):

GTF2H5 (General Transcription Factor IIH, Polypeptide 5):

RFC1 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 1, 145kDa):

RFC2 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2, 40kDa):

RFC3 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 3, 38kDa):

RFC4 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 4, 37kDa):

RFC5 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa):

POLK (Polymerase (DNA Directed) kappa):

ERCC4 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 4):

ERCC5 (DNA Repair Protein Complementing XP-G Cells):

ERCC6 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 6):

ERCC8 (Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Rodent Repair Deficiency, Complementation Group 8):

POLE (Polymerase (DNA Directed), Epsilon, Catalytic Subunit):

POLE2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 2 (p59 Subunit)):

POLE3 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), epsilon 3 (p17 Subunit)):

POLE4 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), epsilon 4 (p12 Subunit)):

PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen):

XRCC1 (X-Ray Repair Complementing Defective Repair in Chinese Hamster Cells 1):

FEN1 (Flap Structure-Specific Endonuclease 1):

LIG1 (Ligase I, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

RPA1 (Replication Protein A1, 70kDa):

RPA2 (Replication Protein A2, 32kDa):

RPA3 (Replication Protein A3, 14kDa):

Mismatch Repair

MSH3 (MutS Homolog 3):

MSH6 (MutS Homolog 6 (E. Coli)):

PMS2 (PMS2 Postmeiotic Segregation Increased 2 (S. Cerevisiae)):

RFC1 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 1, 145kDa):

RFC2 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 2, 40kDa):

RFC3 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 3, 38kDa):

RFC4 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 4, 37kDa):

RFC5 (Replication Factor C (Activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa):

POLD1 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 1, Catalytic Subunit 125kDa):

POLD2 (Polymerase (DNA Directed), delta 2, Accessory Subunit):

POLD3 (Polymerase (DNA-Directed), delta 3, Accessory Subunit):

PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen):

LIG1 (Ligase I, DNA, ATP-Dependent):

RPA1 (Replication Protein A1, 70kDa):

RPA2 (Replication Protein A2, 32kDa):

RPA3 (Replication Protein A3, 14kDa):

Direct Reversal

MGMT (O6-Methylguanine-DNA-Methyltransferase):

ALKBH1 (AlkB, Alkylation Repair Homolog 1):

ALKBH2 (AlkB, Alkylation Repair Homolog 2):

ALKBH3 (AlkB, Alkylation Repair Homolog 3):

Trans-Lesion Synthesis

POLI (Polymerase (DNA Directed) iota):

POLH (Polymerase (DNA Directed), eta):

REV3L (REV3-Like, Polymerase (DNA Directed), Zeta, Catalytic Subunit):

REV1 (REV1, Polymerase (DNA Directed)):

POLK (Polymerase (DNA Directed) kappa):

PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen):

FA/BRCA Pathway

BRIP1 (BRCA1 Interacting Protein C-terminal Helicase 1):

ERCC1 (Excision Repair Cross Complementing Polypeptide-1):

BTBD12 (BTB (POZ) Domain Containing 12):

FAN1 (FANCD2/FANCI-Associated Nuclease 1):

FANCI (Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group I):

FANCA (Fanconi Anemia Group A Protein):

FANCG (Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group G):

FANCM (Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group M):

BRCA2 (Breast Cancer 2, Early Onset):

HES1 (Hes Family bHLH Transcription Factor 1):

FANCE (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group E):

BLM (Bloom Syndrome RecQ Like Helicase):

FANCL (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group L):

EIF2AK2 (Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 2-alpha Kinase 2):

FANCC (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group C):

FANCD2 (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group D2):

FANCF (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group F):

FANCB (Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group B):

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